The most common types of personal injury claims are road traffic accidents, accidents at work, tripping accidents, assault claims, accidents in the home, product defect accidents (product liability) and holiday accidents. The term personal injury also incorporates medical and dental accidents (which lead to numerous medical negligence claims every year) and conditions that are often classified as industrial disease cases, including asbestosis and peritoneal mesothelioma, chest diseases (e.g., emphysema, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic obstructive airways disease), vibration white finger, occupational deafness, occupational stress, contact dermititis, and repetitive strain injury cases.
If the negligence of another party can be proved, the injured party may be entitled to monetary compensation from that party. In the United States, this system is complex and controversial, with critics calling for various forms of tort reform. Attorneys often represent clients on a “contingency basis,” in which the attorney’s fee is a percentage of the plaintiff’s eventual compensation, payable when the case is resolved. Oftentimes, having an attorney becomes essential because cases become extremely complex, such as in medical malpratice cases.
DUI (Driving Under the Influence)
Driving under the influence (DUI) is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit. Similar regulations cover driving or operating certain types of machinery while affected by drinking alcohol or taking other drugs. This is a criminal offense in most countries. Details of the offense depend upon the jurisdiction, and may include merely being in physical control of a motor vehicle while being under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Convictions do not necessarily involve actual driving of the vehicle. In most jurisdictions a measurement such as a blood alcohol content in excess of a defined level, such as 0.05% or 0.08% defines the offense, with no need to prove impairment or being under the influence of alcohol. In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at e.g. 0.12%. In most countries, anyone who is convicted of injuring or killing someone while under the influence of alcohol or drugs can be heavily fined, as in France, in addition to being given a lengthy prison sentence.
A traffic violation is any violation of vehicle laws that is committed by the driver of a vehicle, while the vehicle is moving. Such violations are also referred to as moving violations. Laws relating to moving violations and the associated penalties vary by jurisdiction. Some common examples of moving violations are: driving while intoxicated, failure to signal for turns or lane changes, failing to drive within a single lane, driving over the speed limit, failure to stop at a stop sign or red light, driving in a car pool lane illegally, failure to stop for a school bus when children are boarding or exiting, failure to secure a load to a truck or lorry, and failure to yield to a vehicle with the right of way. Parking violations, equipment violations, or paperwork violations relating to insurance, registration, inspection, do not fall under the moving violation category.